Main Fields of Research Activities
| Main Fields of Research Activities
High Energy Density Physics
The priority research results obtained at IEP UD RAS have made a considerable contribution to the dynamic development of the high energy density physics and engineering. They are used in interdisciplinary experimental studies performed at the Institute, other organizations of RAS, and some foreign institutions. The spectrum of our interests includes nanosecond and picosecond processes in accumulation, switching, and conversion of high-density electrical energy. Our specialists have developed unique nanosecond high-voltage repetitive pulse generators based on the SOS effect and a series of compact pulse systems and electrophysical devices on this basis. Studies dealing with compression of high-voltage pulses of picosecond high-voltage pulses have been performed. The relevant systems, which provide gigawatt peak powers, include both conventional gas-discharge switches and unique high-current semiconductor peaking switches.
Production and Application of Charged Particle Beams
Specialists at our Institute have designed electron accelerators capable of generating repetitively pulsed electron beams with wide intervals of their duration (10-10Ц10-3 s), currents (1Ц103 A), and electron energies (10Ц900 keV). The heart of a nanosecond high-current accelerator is a vacuum diode which uses the phenomenon of explosive emission of electrons. Submillisecond-long electron beams are generated by accelerators with low-pressure arc and glow discharge plasma cathodes. Results of basic research on the interaction of electron beams with materials, gases, and biological objects were embodied as electron accelerators for radiation sterilization in medicine and removal of toxic impurities from gas mixtures, X-ray flaw detection, pulsed cathodoluminescence instruments, electroionization lasers, and other promising devices. Glow-discharge ion sources, which produce wide beams of gas ions having the energy of up to 50 keV and the power of up to 3 kW, are used in
a commercial technology for deposition of coatings with the assistance of an ion beam.
Scientific principles of methods and necessary equipment are developed for synthesis and compaction of weakly aggregating nanopowders by means of pulsed power. Comprehensive approaches provide unique states of nanosized phases in powders and compacts thanks to high rates and short duration (10-6-10-3 s) of heating, evaporation, condensation and compression of substances. Synthesis conditions were studied for a wide spectrum of nanopowders made of oxides, nitrides, metals and alloys by methods of electrical explosion of wire (Al2O3, ZrO2, NiO, AlN, Cu, Al, Ag, W, etc.) and laser evaporation of targets (YSZ, SmDCe, GdDCe,
Results of studies performed at the Institute are realized in technologies for synthesis of new types of bulk nanostructured materials intended for various constructional and functional applications.
Coherent Radiation Sources
and Nonlinear Optics
New sources of electromagnetic radiation are developed and find interesting practical applications as a result of a wide spectrum of basic research. These include investigations on improvement of the УenergyФ of the active medium of electric-discharge gas lasers, discovery and study of pulsed cathodoluminescence with a highly intense, stable and informative spectrum, analysis of steady-state and unsteady-state regimes of the electron-wave interaction with different elementary mechanisms, which leads to generation of superpower electromagnetic pulses of the microwave range, and study of effects of the nonlinear interaction between coherent optical radiation and various media. Generally, theoretically substantiated and experimentally proven results are quickly embodied as saleable prototypes of electrophysical instruments and pilot variants of technological systems.
Theoretic groups of our Institute work mainly on condensed matter theory and on computational studies of nonlinear processes and instabilities in plasmas.
Main results were obtained in electronic theory and magnetism of disordered systems (Anderson localization, pseudogap, development of first - principles methods for calculation of electronic structure of strongly correlated electronic systems (LDA+DMFT), magneto-ordered crystals, magnetic phase transitions in condensed magnetic alloys with competing exchange and anisotropic interactions, spin waves in amorphous and disordered magnetics, granular magnetic systems), superconductivity (disordered superconductors, high-temperature superconductivity, phonon mechanism of superconductivity, relationship of critical currents and irreversible magnetization of granular superconductors), nonlinear dynamics for different types of surfaces in electric and magnetic fields.