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Applications of Electron and Ion Beams

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Applications of Electron and Ion Beams

Based on the analysis of the spectral composition of the illumination of the metal target during irradiation with heavy ions of medium energy experiments have shown the presence of zones of explosive energy release (the passage areas of dense cascades of atomic displacements), heated to 3000-6000 K (thermal spikes). Thermal pressures (5-40 GPa) have been estimated in these areas.

The presence of thermal peaks also confirmed in experiments on irradiation of metal nanowires with a diameter of 60 and 100 nm in pure Ni and alloy Fe56Ni44, where the areas of thermal peaks identified. These areas cause surface melting of the nanowires and are areas of extreme pressure, causing deformation and failure of nanowires.

Indirectly, the presence of the shock-wave component of the action under ion irradiation is confirmed by comparative experiments on ion bombardment and mechanical shock loading of aluminum alloys.

The fundamentals of the theory were constructed (see. [1-3]) for continuous distribution of flat and spherical after-cascade solitary waves in meta-stable mediums, performing on your front structural and phase transformations on the basis of the phenomenological and hydrodynamic approach. The conditions were studied under which such transformations were observed.

The phenomenon of accelerated (within a few seconds of irradiation) volumetric structural-phase rearrangement of metastable media at the surface cascade-forming ion irradiation caused by the propagation of post-cascade shock waves was found. Methods of modification of properties of submillimeter and millimeter of the surface layers of the materials by heavy (M > 10 atomic mass unit) accelerated ions with energies of 5-100 KeV, projected ranges of which in the substance does not exceed a few tens of nanometers, have been developed.

On the basis of the discovered phenomenon are offered:

  1. Ion-beam treatment modes providing zero value of TCC (in the temperature range of 300-700 K) for precision resistors (d= 0.1 mm) from high-resistance alloys of Fe-Pd-Au system due to the formation of a special type of long-range atomic order in them within a few seconds of irradiation (see [1, 2]).
  2. A method of reducing watt losses in transformer steels and nanocrystalline and amorphous tapes by 5-35% in the frequency range from 50 to 10 000 Hz (a patent was obtained together with the IMP, UB of RAS, 2008).
  3. A method of ion-beam treatment of carbonyl iron powder that increases its saturation magnetization by 1.8% and provides a 5-10-fold increase in the Q-factor of inductors for radio electronics with a core of the composite "dielectric – carbonyl iron" in the frequency range of 0.01 – 5 MHz. Work is performed in cooperation with OOO "PKZh Synthesis" (Dzerzhinsk).
  4. The basic technology of accelerated cold radiation annealing to restore ductility of cold drawn bars and profiles (thickness 1-6 mm) industrial aluminum alloy by beams of accelerated Ar+ ions (20-40 KeV) for 5-30 s at lower temperatures (150-200 K), instead of lasting for 2-6 h, standard furnace annealing (patent in cooperation with Kamensk-Uralsky metallurgical plant, 2009).
  5. Laboratory technology of intermediate softening radiation annealing by a beam of accelerated ions Ar+ (E = 40 KeV) of aviation alloy of the third generation 1424 (Al-Mg-Li-Zn), not amenable to thermal annealing. The alloy has a reduced density (2.54 g/cm3), increased fracture toughness characteristics. Softening of the alloy is achieved only by heating for quenching and sheet cooling in a saltpeter bath. The proposed technology of short-term (within a few seconds) irradiation of the cold-deformed alloy 1424 provides a regulated level of properties, which in the future allows to implement the method of its roll rolling. The work was carried out in conjunction with FGUP "VIAM" (Moscow).

Patents:

  1. Method of thermomagnetic treatment of soft magnetic materials: RF patent №. 2321644, IPC C21D 1/04 (2006.01) / Gubernatorov V.V., Dragoshansky Yu.N., Ivchenko V.A., Ovchinnikov V.V., Sycheva T.S. – № 2006128319/02. Declared. 03.08.06. Publ. 10.04.08. Bul. No. 10.
  2. Method for producing sheet metal from aluminum alloys: RF patent № 2363755 / Ovchinnikov V.V., Gavrilov N.V., Guschina N.V., Shkolnikov A.R., Mozharovsky S.M., Filippov A.V. – № 2006143709/02. Declared. 08.12.2006. Publ. 10.08.2009. Bul. No. 22.
  3. Method of thermomagnetic treatment of soft magnetic materials: RF patent № 2430975 / Gubernatorov V.V., Dragosansky Yu.N., Ivchenko V.A., Sycheva T.S. – № 2010112625. Declared. 31.03.2010. Publ. 10.10.2011, Bul. No. 28.

Literature:

  1. V.V. Ovchinnikov, Self-propagating phases transformations in metastable media induced by ion bombardment, Proc. SPIE, 2259 (1994) 605–608.
  2. V.V. Ovchinnikov, Radiation-dynamic effects. Potential for producing condensed media with unique properties and structural states, Phys.–Usp., 51 9 (2008) 955–974.
  3. V.V. Ovchinnikov, N.V. Gushchina, S.V. Ovchinnikov, Mӧssbauer and Resistometric Study of α(bcc) → γ(fcc) Phase Transformation Induced by Ion Bombardment and Intraphase Processes in the Fe+8.25 at % Mn Alloy, Phys. Met. Metallogr., 116 (2015) 1234–1243.
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